Collaborative Versus Prescriptive Legislating and Rulemaking: A Case Study of the Driver's License Provisions in the REAL ID Act of 2005

  • Susan E. Randolph
Keywords: Real ID Act of 2005, driver's license provisions, personal identification, Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act, War on Terror, national ID, Department of Homeland Security, DHS, September 11, Secretary of Homeland Security


The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and America's engagement in the Global War on Terror have added urgency to long-standing Congressional efforts to strengthen the country's system for establishing personal identification. Randolph examines the REAL ID Act of 2005, which legislates uniform requirements for state drivers' licenses. She describes the way the REAL ID Act became law and is being implemented by the executive branch and outlines the objections of state and local government officials to its driver's license provisions.

Author Biography

Susan E. Randolph
Susan Randolph will graduate in May 2007 as the Honor Graduate from The George Washington University Master of Public Administration program. She holds a B.A. with distinction and honors in German from the University of Michigan and an M.L.S. from the University of Maryland. She is currently a special assistant in the Office of Fraud Prevention Programs at the U.S. Department of State. The author would like to thank Professors Jed Kee and Kathy Newcomer for their encouragement during the writing of this article.